Roland A. Carlstedt, Ph.D.
Chair de American Board of Sport Psychology
Presenta el Journal of ABSP.
Attribute-Based Selection for Success: The Role of Personality Attributes in Long-Term Predictions of Achievement in Sport
Aidman, E.V., Defense Science & Technology Organization & School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, South Australia
The predictive utility of personal attributes for high-stake selection was examined in a case of athletic achievement in Australian rules football. A group of 32 elite junior players from a leading Australian Football League (AFL) club were assessed with the Sixteen Personality Factors Inventory (Form A; Cattell, Eber & Tatsuoka, 1970) at the peak of their junior playing career. Seven years later, 13 players from this junior sample had made it into senior AFL competition, whereas 19 others ended up playing minor leagues or dropped out. The two groups did not differ on primary personality factors, nor on coach ratings of their performance as juniors. However, when the players' physical potential rated by their junior coach was controlled for in a MANCOVA, the differences between the groups became highly significant: both on multivariate estimates (F (16, 14) = 3.51; p = .012) and on a number of individual factors. Consequently, personality factors produced a more accurate prediction of the junior players' transition to senior AFL (84.2% players correctly classified as successful transition makers vs drop-outs in a discriminant function analysis) than did the combined coach ratings of the players' performance and potential shown in juniors (59.4% accuracy). Moreover, when personality factors were combined with only one of the coach ratings - that of players' physical potential - the same prediction achieved a perfect 100% accuracy. Regression analyses further revealed that predictions from personality measures were much more accurate for longer-term outcomes: they explained just over 11% variance in the coach ratings of player performance in the junior championship, but nearly 61% of variance in the aggregate performance ratings over five seasons in the seniors competition, and 99% of variance in the coach ratings on the construct "struggling - cruising through senior 3 ranks". The results support the mediating role of personality in converting ability into achievement. In practical terms, they confirm the utility of combining estimates of physical ability with personality profiling in predicting the likelihood of success in junior players' transition to seniors competition.
Conceptualizing Applied Exercise Psychology
Mark H. Anshel, Ph.D., Department of Health and Human Performance and Psychology Department, Middle Tennessee State University
Exercise psychology has become an emerging field of scholarly research, prolific conference presentations, and of increasing relevance to a world that is experiencing a health paradox. Vastly improved medical care, at least in most of the western world, has been accompanied by a paucity of healthy habits (e.g., a deep propensity to avoid physical activity, intake of large portions of high fat food). The result is decreased health and increased health care costs for all age groups, ethnicities, and genders. While reasons for the negative attitude toward exercise abound, the combination of ubiquitous rates of obesity and the resultant poor health and high health care costs has resulted in a flurry of activity by researchers and practitioners to improve exercise and nutritional habits. Perhaps not surprisingly, then, the field of exercise psychology has become increasingly relevant. Therefore, it is surprising that a companion field of exercise psychology has not been given more prominence in the literature. Defining the conceptual framework for applied exercise psychology is overdue. The purpose of this article, then, is to provide a structure for scholars and practitioners in the study and application of applied exercise psychology. The framework is based on the extant literature, which has focused on the factors that contribute to describing, explaining, predicting, and improving exercise behavior in a culture whose sedentary, generally unhealthy lifestyle is resulting in increasingly poorer health. The need for additional research and practice in applied exercise psychology has never been timelier. Guidelines for future directions in the field are also offered.
Integrative Evidence-Based Athlete Assessment and Intervention: A Field-Tested and Validated Protocol
Roland A. Carlstedt1, 2 , 3 1American Board of Sport Psychology; 2Brain Resource Company; 3Integrative Psychological Services of New York City
This article presents a comprehensive evidence-based and field-tested athlete assessment and intervention protocol that has been validated over the last ten years. It is based on an integrative individual-differences model of peak performance, one that stresses ecological validity, real-time monitoring, on-the-playing-field individualized interventions (during practice and competition) and testing mental training methods for efficacy. It stands in stark contrast to conventional practices that are marked by loosely and arbitrarily administered eclectic, hybrid and poorly controlled and documented athlete evaluation and mental training methods. The protocol was designed to better illuminate complex mind-body-performance processes through the use of advanced and sophisticated instrumentation, testing paradigms, methodologies and interventions that have a high degree of validity and reliability. It advances a step-by-step hierarchical evidence-based approach that is predicated on the comprehensive assessment of athlete neuropsychophysiological responses prior to, during and after practice and competition and in the context of mental training. It will be shown how this approach to science-based applied sport psychology can be used to gain unprecedented insight into the mental game, better predict psychological tendencies, intervene more effectively and utilize databases of mind-body measures to empirically quantify the player selection, development and mental preparation process.
Neurofeedback for the Enhancement of Athletic Performance and Physical Balance
D. Corydon Hammond, Ph.D., ECNS, BCIA-EEG, University of Utah School of Medicine
Neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) holds potential for retraining brainwave activity to enhance optimal performance in athletes in various sports. Neurofeedback has been shown to have potential for quieting the mind to improve performance in archery, for example. It can also be used to improve concentration and focus, to improve cognitive function and emotional control following concussions and mild head injuries, and it has untapped potential to increase physical balance in gymnastics, ice skating, skiing, and other areas of performance. Clinical examples are provided on the use of neurofeedback to improve physical balance and controlled research is called for.
Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Mood on Performance as a Function of Practice versus Competition Conditions: A Season-Long Study of Artistic Roller Skaters
Harald Barkhoff1, Ian S. Pagano2, and Elaine M. Heiby3 University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, USA1, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA2, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA3
A training champion is defined as someone who repeatedly fails in competition despite good results during training. In contrast, the competitor type is defined by not only being able to transfer his or her achievements from training to competition but often surpass them and achieve even better results in competition. The purpose of this study is to explore whether a training champion repeatedly differs from a competitor type in terms of mood before and after competition. Two top level artistic roller skaters participated in this season long case study. Findings indicated that, compared to the training champion, the competitor type repeatedly exhibited more activation, more calmness and less anger before and after competition. It was also found that the activation increased from earlier to later events for both training champion and competitor type. The level of arousal was less after competition compared to before competition for both skaters. The results have implications for both preparation and participation in highlight sport competitions for skaters and perhaps other athletes. Preparation strategies worthy of investigation include mood regulation to enhance activation and calmness and to reduce anger.
("Live" presentations available upon request via Tele-conferencing: Contact ABSP)
Mind-Body Measures and Sport Performance: Longitudinal Findings
Roland A. Carlstedt1, 2 , 3 1American Board of Sport Psychology; 2Brain Resource Company; 3Integrative Psychological Services of New York City (Symposium Chairman)
Tennis Study Group Research Report: Presentation 1 of Symposium
Carlstedt, R.A.1, 2 and Pearlstein, I1, 4
Baseball Study Group Research Report: Presentation 2 of Symposium
Carlstedt, R.A1, 2., Pearlstein, I1, 4, Prine, M1, 3, Guerrero, A.E1 and Rodeka, P.1
American Board of Sport Psychology1, Brain Resource Company2, Temple University 3, Glaxo Smith and Kline4
"Dunks, Doubles, Doping: How Steroids Are Killing American Athletics" by Nathan Jendrick (2006, The Lyons Press)
Eric Morse, M.D. Carolina Performance