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The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23

Se presentan los resúmenes de algunos de los artículos editados este año en: The sport psychologist.

Este es uno de los journals  de alta calidad con trabajos polémicos.

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 24-41

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Coaching Efficacy and Volunteer Youth Sport Coaches

Deborah L. Feltz, Teri J. Hepler, and Nathan Roman

Michigan State University

Craig Paiement

Western Michigan University

The Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) measures beliefs coaches have to affect the learning and performance of their athletes. While previous research has provided support for the model of coaching efficacy and the CES as an adequate measure of the construct, these studies have used paid high-school and college coaches. It is possible that the factor structure of the CES may not replicate for volunteer youth sport coaches.

The purpose of this study was to explore coaching efficacy sources used by volunteer youth sport coaches. In addition, the validity of the CES was examined, using a 5-point condensed rating scale, among volunteer youth sport coaches before exploring the sources. The study involved 492 volunteer youth sport coaches from various team sports. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the CES had an acceptable fit to the data. The sources of coaching efficacy were examined via multivariate multiple regression and canonical correlation. Results indicated that more confident coaches had more extensive playing and coaching backgrounds, felt their players improved more throughout the season, and perceived more support than did less confident coaches, particularly in regard to technique and game strategy efficacy.

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 151-169

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Structured Self-Reflection as a Tool to Enhance Perceived Performance and Maintain Effort in Adult Recreational Salsa Dancers

Stephanie J. Hanrahan

University of Queensland

Rachel Pedro

Queensland University of Technology

Ester Cerin

Baylor College of Medicine

The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) were modified slightly to reflect involvement in salsa dancing rather than sport and then were administered to 139 Latin dance students at the beginning and end of an 11-week term. The dance classes were divided into control and intervention groups, balanced in terms of sample size and level of instruction. The intervention group completed a salsa self-reflection form during or after class for 9 weeks. At the posttest all students rated their salsa performance and the intervention group evaluated the self-reflection process. Results indicate that although achievement goal orientations were not affected, structured self-reflection is perceived to be a positive tool and may be a useful technique to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort and perceived importance. The participants’ perceptions of the self-reflection process were positive, with no negative effects of engaging in the process reported.

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 186-202

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Athlete Engagement in Elite Sport: An Exploratory Investigation of Antecedents and Consequences

Ken Hodge

University of Otago

Chris Lonsdale

University College, Dublin

Susan A. Jackson

University of Queensland

In this exploratory study, we examined hypothesized antecedents (basic psychological needs) and consequences (dispositional flow) of athlete engagement (AE); plus the extent to which AE mediated the relationship between basic needs and flow. Structural equation modeling with a sample of 201 elite Canadian athletes (60.20% female, mean age = 22.92 years) showed that needs satisfaction (particularly competence & autonomy) predicted athlete engagement (30% explained variance); and needs satisfaction and athlete engagement predicted dispositional flow (68% explained variance).

AE partially mediated the relationship between needs satisfaction and flow.

Practical suggestions are offered for needs-supportive coaching programs designed to increase both AE and flow.

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 203-232

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

The Coach-Athlete Relationship: A Tripartite Efficacy Perspective

Ben Jackson

University of Western Australia

Peter Knapp

University of Leeds

Mark R. Beauchamp

University of British Columbia

The purpose of the current study was to identify putative antecedents and consequences associated with self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy, within the context of elite coach-athlete dyads. Semi structured interviews were conducted with each member of six international-level coach-athlete partnerships, and data were analyzed using inductive and deductive content analytic techniques.

Results for both athletes and coaches demonstrated that the above ‘tripartite efficacy beliefs’’ (cf. Lent & Lopez, 2002) were identified as originating from perceptions regarding oneself, inferences regarding the ‘other’ dyad member (e.g., the athlete’s coach), as well as the dyad as a whole. Results also revealed that the tripartite efficacy constructs were interrelated, and independently associated with a number of positive task-related and relationship-oriented consequences. Findings are considered in relation to developing and sustaining effective coach-athlete relationships at the elite level.

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 233-251

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Automatic Self-Talk Questionnaire for Sports (ASTQS): Development and Preliminary Validation of a Measure Identifying the Structure of Athletes’ Self-Talk.

Nikos Zourbanos, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Stiliani Chroni, Yannis Theodorakis, and Athanasios Papaioannou

University of Thessaly

The aim of the present investigation was to develop an instrument assessing the content and the structure of athletes’ self-talk. The study was conducted in three stages.

In the first stage, a large pool of items was generated and content analysis was used to organize the items into categories. Furthermore, item-content relevance analysis was conducted to help identifying the most appropriate items. In Stage 2, the factor structure of the instrument was examined by a series of exploratory factor analyses (Sample A: N = 507), whereas in Stage 3 the results of the exploratory factor analysis were retested through confirmatory factor analyses (Sample B: N = 766) and at the same time concurrent validity were assessed. The analyses revealed eight factors, four positive (psych up, confidence, anxiety control and instruction), three negative (worry, disengagement and somatic fatigue) and one neutral (irrelevant thoughts). The findings of the study provide evidence regarding the multidimensionality of self-talk, suggesting that ASTQS seems a psychometrically sound instrument that could help us developing cognitive-behavioral theories and interventions to examine and modify athletes’ self-talk.

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 252-270

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Psychological Characteristics and Their Relation to Performance in Professional Golfers

Julien E. Bois

University of Pau and Pays de l’Adour

Philippe G. Sarrazin

University of Grenoble

Julien Southon

French Golf Federation

Julie C. S. Boiché

University of La Réunion

This study investigated the psychological characteristics of professional golfers and their relation to golf performance. The aims of the study were (a) to provide descriptive data on professional golfers, (b) to test possible differences between successful and unsuccessful players and (c) to estimate whether psychological characteristics could predict golf performance. The data were collected from 41 male professional golfers the day before an official competition. Results revealed that players who made the cut were characterized by higher scores on performance-approach goal, cognitive and somatic anxiety, relaxation strategies, attentional control, emotional control and lower score on performance-avoidance goal. Subsequently, a multiple regression analysis revealed that higher cognitive anxiety, more frequent use of relaxation strategies and emotional control strategies were associated with better player’s ranking at the end of the competition.

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 301-316

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Naturalistic Observations of Spectator Behavior at Youth Hockey Games

Anne Bowker, Belinda Boekhoven, Amanda Nolan, Stephanie

Bauhaus, Paul Glover, Tamara Powell, and Shannon Taylor

Carleton University

The purpose of the current study was to conduct an examination of spectator (i.e., parental) behavior at youth hockey games in a large Canadian city. Using naturalistic observation methods, an event sampling procedure was used to code spectators’ comments.

Of specific interest were the type of remarks made, who made them (i.e., males versus females), the intensity of those remarks and whether they varied by child age, gender, and competitive level. We were also interested in whether the majority of onlookers’ comments were actually directed at the players, on-ice officials, or fellow spectators. Five observers attended 69 hockey games during the 2006-2007 hockey seasons. There was a significant variability in the number of comments made, with an average of 105 comments per game. The majority of the comments were generally positive ones, directed at the players. Negative comments, although quite infrequent, were directed largely at the referees. Females made more comments than did males, although males made more negative and corrective comments, and females made mostly positive comments. Comments varied significantly as a function of gender and competitive level. Proportionally more negative comments were made at competitive, as opposed to recreational games. An interaction was found for female spectators as their comments varied as a function of both the competitive level and the gender of the players. Results of this study are in direct contrast to media reports of extreme parental violence at youth hockey games, and provide unique information about the role of parental involvement at youth sporting events.

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 317-329

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Why Some Make It and Others Do Not: Identifying Psychological Factors That Predict Career Success in Professional Adult Soccer

Nico W. Van Yperen

University of Groningen

This prospective study was designed to identify psychological factors that predict career success in professional adult soccer. Post hoc, two groups were distinguished: (1) Male soccer players who successfully progressed into professional adult soccer (n = 18) and (2) Male soccer players who did not reach this level (n = 47). Differences between the two groups were examined on the basis of data gathered in the initial phase of their careers, 15 years earlier.

The psychological factors that predicted career success while statistically controlling for initial performance level and demographic variables were goal commitment, engagement in problem-focused coping behaviors, and social support seeking.

On the basis of their scores on the significant predictor and control variables, 84.6% of the adolescent youth players were classified correctly

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 367-387

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Development of the Coaching Issues Survey (CIS)

Betty C. Kelley

Performance Enhancement Group, Inc.

Timothy Baghurst

Henderson State University

The Coaching Issues Survey (CIS) was developed to measure sport/coaching-specific issues that may produce stress within the coaching role and situation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure with a sample of collegiate basketball coaches. The four separate, but related subscales of Win-Loss, Time-Role, Program-Success, and Athlete-Concerns demonstrated high internal consistency and good stability over time. The CIS was sensitive to gender differences and paralleled differences noted with stress and burnout measures. The CIS was quite predictive of stress appraisal and slightly predictive of burnout, providing evidence for construct validity as a personal/situational variable within the current theoretical conceptualizations of the stress and burnout process. The initial reliability and validity evidence suggests that the CIS can be a valuable measure of potentially problematic issues for coaches, facilitating the investigation of stress and burnout in coaching.

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 388-404

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

"It’s Not My Fault; it’s not serious": Athlete Accounts of Moral Disengagement in Competitive Sport

Karine Corrion and Thierry Long

University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis

Alan L. Smith

Purdue University

Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville

University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis

This study was designed to assess athletes’ use of moral disengagement in competitive sport. We conducted semi structured interviews with 24 elite male and female athletes in basketball and taekwondo. Participants described transgressive behaviors in competitive situations and reasons for adopting such behaviors. Content analyses revealed that the eight moral disengagement mechanisms identified in everyday life (i.e., moral justification, advantageous comparison, euphemistic labeling, minimizing or ignoring consequences, attribution of blame, dehumanization, displacement of responsibility, and diffusion of responsibility; Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 1996) were germane in sport. However, the most frequently adopted mechanisms in sport (i.e., displacement and diffusion of responsibility, attribution of blame, minimizing or ignoring consequences, and euphemistic labeling) differed somewhat from those considered most salient in everyday life (i.e., moral justification, advantageous comparison, and euphemistic labeling). Moral disengagement mechanisms linked to projecting fault onto others ("It’s not my fault") and minimization of transgressions and their consequences ("It’s not serious") appear to be especially prominent in sport. The findings extend the sport moral disengagement literature by showcasing athlete accounts of moral disengagement.

The Sport Psychologist, 2009, 23, 405-424

2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.

College Athletic Directors’ Perceptions of Sport Psychology Consulting

Kelly A. Wilson

3D Soccer

Janelle N. Gilbert, Wade D. Gilbert, and Scott R. Sailor

California State University

Seventy-two college athletic directors (ADs) participated in a survey about (a) previous experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), (b) previous exposure to the field, and (c) attitudes toward sport psychology consulting. ADs were confused about appropriate training for SPCs, highlighted by the fact that 66.7% were unaware of any certification for SPCs. Although Ads’ attitudes toward SPCs did not differ based on previous experience with SPCs, there was a statistically significant difference between ADs who were aware of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) and those who were unaware. Results demonstrate the need to educate potential employers regarding appropriate qualifications for SPCs. The discussion culminates with suggestions for future research and recommendations for enhancing effectiveness of outreach programs.

Saludos

García Ucha

12/12/2009 22:17 ucha #. sin tema

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