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International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2009


Contenido en resumenes:

The influence of implicit cognitive processes on physical activity: how the theory of planned behaviour and self-determination theory can provide a platform for our understanding

Authors: James A. Dimmock a; Lauren K. Banting a

International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2009 , pages 3 - 22


The influence of implicit cognitive processes on social behaviour has been heavily scrutinised in recent years. A burgeoning body of literature now indicates that implicit processes are particularly predictive of those behaviours that are spontaneously performed and difficult to control. Although interest in implicit cognition has been strong in many

fields, few studies have investigated the role of implicit cognitive processes on physical activity. In this article we highlight the avenues through which implicit processes might influence different forms of activity. Two of the most prominent theories in sport and exercise psychology - the theory of planned behaviour and self-determination theory - are used as templates through which discussion is focused. Studies on implicit processes that have utilised these theories are reviewed and critiqued, and the implications of findings from these studies on the prediction of physical activity are discussed. The final section includes a discussion of recent theorising on the mechanisms through which implicit cognitive processes might change. It is hoped that discussion of these important issues will stimulate research into the role of implicit cognitive processes in physical activity.

Keywords: implicit; automatic; physical activity; exercise

Tracing the origins of athlete development models in sport: a citation path analysis

Authors: Mark W. Bruner a;  Karl Erickson a;  Kimberley McFadden a; Jean C t a

International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2009 , pages 23 - 37


Reviews of the sport psychology literature have identified a number of models of athlete development in sport (Alfermann & Stambulova, 2007; Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2001). However, minimal research has investigated the origins of knowledge from which each model was developed. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the influential texts responsible for providing the basis of athlete development models in sport. A citation path analysis of the sport psychology literature was used to generate a knowledge development path of seven athlete development models in sport. The analysis identified influential texts and authors in the conceptualization of athlete development. The population of 229 texts (articles, books, book chapters) was selected in two phases. Phase 1 texts were articles citing seven articles depicting models of athlete development (n=75). Phase 2 included texts cited three or more times by Phase 1 articles (n=154). The analysis revealed how the scholarship of Benjamin Bloom (1985) has been integrated into the field of sport psychology, and how two articles appearing in 1993 and 2003 helped shape present conceptualizations of athlete development.

Keywords: athlete development; expertise; transition; citation; review



The Dual-Mode Theory of affective responses to exercise in metatheoretical context: I. Initial impetus, basic postulates, and philosophical framework

Author: Panteleimon Ekkekakis a

International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2009 , pages 73 - 94


The exercise psychology literature is replete with assertions that 'exercise makes people feel better'. However, this appears to be inconsistent with the high prevalence of physical inactivity and drop-out rates. Recent empirical findings, based on a new methodological platform, have demonstrated that the exercise-affect relationship is complex, exhibiting both a dose-response pattern and substantial inter-individual variability. The Dual-Mode Theory was developed to (a) bridge mind-focused and body-focused approaches for explaining the exercise-affect relationship, (b) provide a fit to extant data by accounting for patterns of dose-response and inter-individual variability, and (c) be consistent with information from exercise physiology and emerging evidence on the neural basis of affect. Investigations based on the Dual-Mode Theory could inform the ongoing debate on the role of somatic influences in generating affective responses and guide interventions designed to improve the affective responses of exercisers. A selective review of phenomenological accounts that served as the philosophical basis of the theory supports the thesis that affect has a dual basis, being driven by cognition in many circumstances but by direct somatic cues when homeostasis is challenged.

Keywords: exercise; physical activity; affect; phenomenology; embodiment

Implications of attachment theory for sport and physical activity research: conceptual links with achievement goal and peer-relationship models

Author: Sam Carr a

International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2009 , pages 95 - 115


This paper attempted to integrate the developmental literature on attachment theory with the achievement goal and peer-relationship literature that has been central to sport and physical activity research in recent decades. Attachment theory, achievement goal models, and sport peer-relationship frameworks are briefly reviewed and the conceptual links between the theories are explored. It is contended that attachment theory offers conceptually useful avenues of research related to the constructs of achievement goals, perceived motivational climate, and experiences of peer relationships in sport-related contexts. A brief discussion regarding potential caveats related to measurement of mental representations of attachment in social and social-cognitive research is also forwarded.

Keywords: attachment; achievement goals; peer relationships; motivation


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