Hatzigeorgiadis, A and S. J.H. Biddle Negative Self-Talk During Sport Performance: Relationships with Pre-Competition Anxiety and Goal-Performance Discrepancies. Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 31, No. 3pp 237-250.
The present investigation examined relationships between pre-competition anxiety, goal-performance discrepancies, and athletes'negative self-talk while performing. Two studies were conducted with athletes who took part in middle-distance cross-country events. The first (N = 38) focused on the relationships between negative self-talk and the intensity and direction of anxiety. Cognitive anxiety intensity had a stronger relationship with negative self-talk (r = .34} than somatic anxiety intensity (r = .23). Furthermore, it was revealed that individuals experiencing anxiety symptoms as facilitative reported less negative self-talk than those experiencing anxiety symptoms as debilitative. The second study (N - 36) examined anxiety components and discrepancies between performance-goals and performance as predictors of negative self-talk. Regression analysis revealed that cognitive anxiety direction and goal-performance discrepancies were significant predictors of negative thoughts (R2 = .41, p < .01), with discrepancies being a stronger predictor (beta = .55) than cognitive anxiety direction (beta = -.32). The results ofthe study indicate that quality of performance in relation to pursued goals is a more potent factor determining negative self-talk athletes experience while performing.
Stevenson S. J. & M. R. Lochbaum. Understanding Exercise Motivation: Examining the Revised Social-Cognitive Model of Achievement Motivation. Journal of Sport Behavior. Vol 31, No. 4 389-412.
Two studies were conducted to examine the utility ofthe revised social-cognitive model of achievement motivation to explain leisure-time exercise motivation. The core antecedent constructs in the model are implicit self-theories and perceived competence. The 2 X 2 achievement goal framework replaces the classic task and performance goal orientation approach. In the main study. 386 participants completed measures assessing the revised social-cognitive model of achievement motivation constructs as well as motivation for leisure-time exercise. A second study (N = 148) was conducted to determine whether the main study results could be replicated. Mediation and suppression analyses were conducted. The results of both investigations were very similar and supported several theoretical predictions ofthe revised model. Speciftcally mastery-approach and performance-avoidance goals consistently processed entity and incremental theory as well as conftdence with regard to exercise motivation. Future directions examining the utility ofthe revised model compared to the original model are discussed
McPherson, S.e L and C. MacMahon. How Baseball Players Prepare to Bat: Tactical Knowledge as a Mediator of Expert Performance in Baseball. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2008, 30, 755-778.
Our understanding of the role of tactical knowledge in baseball batting preparation is scarce, thereby limiting training guidelines. We examined the verbal reports of baseball players and nonplayers when told to view different edited video sequences of a half-inning of baseball competition under different task conditions: to prepare to bat (problem solve); recall as much information as possible (intentional recall); or prepare to bat, with an unexpected recall (incidental recall). Separate mixed-model ANOVAs (Expertise Instruction conditions) on verbal report measures indicated that nonplayers used general strategies for recalling baseball events and lacked the tactical skills to use such information for their upcoming times at bat. In contrast, players used baseball-specific strategies to encode and retrieve pertinent game events from long-term memory (LTM) to develop tactics for their upcoming times at bat and to recall as much information as possible. Recommendations for training tactical skills are presented as some players exhibited deficiencies in the LTM structures that mediate batting decisions.
Schinke, R. J. Randy C. Battochio, Nicole G. Dubuc, and Shawn Swords Gord Apolloni Gershon Tenenbaum. Understanding the Adaptation Strategies of Canadian Olympic Athletes Using Archival Data. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 2008, 2, 337-356
Athletes employ a variety of adaptation strategies when adjusting to competitive environments. Fiske (2004) identified five core motives that facilitate human adaptation: (a) understanding, (b) controlling, (c) self-enhancement, (d) belonging, and (e) trusting. Recent qualitative analyses (Schinke, Gauthier, Dubuc, & Crowder, 2007) revealed that these motives correspond to particular adaptation strategies that professional athletes employ in stressful settings. The present study uses analysis of archival data (i.e., journalistic accounts) to explore the adaptation efforts of Canadian Olympic athletes (N = 103) as they prepared for and participated in summer (n = 35) and winter (n = 68) games. Contextual experts with extensive Olympic experience were enlisted to clarify the archival record. Findings revealed that the Olympic athletes used strategies corresponding to each of Fiske's five motives, as well as numerous specific substrategies. Use of substrategies was consistent across athletes, regardless of Olympic experience, gender, or season (e.g., winter or summer games). Discussion explores the implications of adaptation strategies for Olympic athletes and their supporting staff.
Kavussanu, M., Ian D. Boardley, Natalia Jutkiewicz, Samantha Vincent, and Christopher Ring. Coaching Efficacy and Coaching Effectiveness: Examining Their Predictors and Comparing Coaches' and Athletes' Reports. The Sport Psychologist, 2008, 22, 383-404.
Research on the conceptual model of coaching efficacy (Feltz, Chase, Moritz, & Sullivan, 1999) has increased dramatically over the past few years. Utilizing this model. as the guiding framework, the current study examined: (a) coaching experience and sex as predictors of coaches' coaching efficacy; (b) sport experience, sex, and the match/mismatch in sex between coach and athlete as predictors of athletes' perceptions of their coach's effectiveness on the four coaching efficacy domains; and (c) whether coaches' reports of coaching efficacy and athletes' perceptions of coaching effectiveness differed. Coaches (N = 26) and their athletes (N = 291) from 8 individual and 7 team sports drawn from British university teams (N = 26) participated in the study. Coaches completed the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES), while athletes evaluated their coach's effectiveness using an adapted version of the CES; coaches and athletes also responded to demographic questions. Results indicated that, in coaches, years of coaching experience positively predicted technique coaching efficacy, and males reported higher game strategy efficacy than females. In athletes, sport experience negatively predicted all perceived coaching effectiveness dimensions, and the mismatch in sex between athletes and their coach negatively predicted perceived motivation and character building coaching effectiveness. Finally, on average, coaches' ratings of coaching efficacy were significantly higher than their athletes' ratings of coaching effectiveness on all dimensions. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for coaching effectiveness.
Hare R., and Lynne Evans Nichola Callow. Imagery Use During Rehabilitation From Injury: A Case Study of an Elite Athlete. The Sport Psychologist, 2008, 22, 405-422.
The present study explored the perceived affect of personal and situational ariables, perception of pain, and imagery ability on the function and outcome of an Olympic athlete's use of imagery. To gain an in-depth understanding of these factors, emistructured interviews were conducted across three phases of injury rehabilitation, and return to competition. The athlete also completed the Athletic Injury Imagery Questionnaire-2 (Sordoni, Hall, & Forwell, 2002), the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (Roberts, Callow, Markland, Hardy, & Bringer, 2008), and the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (Huskisson, 1974). Findings highlight the perceived affects of personal and situational variables and imagery ability on the athlete's responses to injury and function of imagery use. Further, this usage was perceived by the athlete to affect outcome depending on the phase of rehabilitation. Interestingly, perception of pain was not considered by the athlete to influence imagery use, this might have been due to the low pain rating reported.
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